The first known mention of Kateřinice appeared in records dating back to 1505. According to those records the owner of Vsetín manor, Jan Kuna of Kunštát, ensured a dowry to his wife, Dorota of Zástřizl. The dowry was Vsetin villages.
Records show that Kateřinice had 195 inhabitants in 1666. In that time it was considered as middle sized village and most of the inhabitants made their living by farming.
In the last half of the 19th century and first half of the 20th Kateřinice numbered among the poorest villages in the Wallaschia region. At that time majority of the v illagers worked as either day laborers locally or seasonal laborers in the Haná region of the Czech republic or in Austria.
In 1900 the manor covered 1312 hectacres, 472 of them wooded. This ready supply of wood resulted in the villagers being able to create local industries. These industries included production of birch baskets, wooden tools and split bottom seats for the nearby bentwood furniture factories which sprang up in Ratiboř and Vsetín.
Before 1849, Kateřinice was part of the Vsetín manor which belonged to the region of Uherské Hradiště. From 1849 to 1909 the village was part of the district of Valašské Meziříčí. From 1909 it belonged to the district of Vsetín. After the end of the district in 2002, it became a part of Zlin region.
Before the issue of the Tolerance Patent in 1781, Kateřinice came under the Catholic School in Pržno. After 1781, children from evangelic families began to visit the Evangelic Luthern School in Ratiboř. In 1876, the primary school was established in Kateřinice. The new school building was erected in 1910 and in 2007 that same building was renovated. In 2005, next to school, a gym was built. It is used by children as well as other people.
The school consists of 1st to 5th grade. Children from 6th to 9th grade need to commute to school in Hošťálková.
Kindergarten (for children from 3 to 6) was opened in 1967.
Kateřinice, as a part of the parish of Pržno, was under the religious control of the Catholic Church until the issue of the Tolerance Patent in 1781. Before the issuing of the Patent and during the years 1777 to 1781 there arose a movement for religious freedom and the village declared itself to be evangelic. But it was not until 1952 that the inhabitants managed to build their own church.
The Evangelical Church was built in 1952 and between1964 – 1965 the attic was added. In 1986, the church was equipped with the organ. In 2001, the church was beautifully restored.
Curate Jaroslav Hána worked in church as first. The priest Bohuslav Novák worked there between 1957 - 2001, priest Pavel Šebesta between 2001 - 2010 and presently priest Miroslaw Jelinek takes care of the parish.
In 1974 a Seventh Day Adventist Church was built and serves three communities: Kateřinice, Hoštálková and Jablůnka.